In 1981, the 25 universities who are members of the association of public universities (CRUCH) published 602 articles in the Web of Science (WOS) index. That number increased to 11,133 in 2016. How did universities become more productive? Studies show that universities can improve their productivity by using academic strategies, such as hiring more researchers, financing more research projects, incentivizing collaborations with other universities or by using non-academic strategies such as publishing the same paper in different languages, increasing the number of academics with double affiliations or participating in large research groups in which all members are included as authors on the group publications. This study analyzes a dataset of 120,329 articles published by academics from CRUCH universities between 1980 and 2016 on the Web of Science. Our main objective is to estimate the use of academic and non-academic strategies to improve the productivity of public universities in Chile.